Clinical exercise and nutrition
Physical inactivity has been identified as the fourth risk factor for global mortality and has major implications on the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and the general health of the population. Although participation in physical activity by generally healthy individuals can be self-directed, there are demands for prescribed exercise for people with specific needs or care, such as older adults, individuals with disability, and patients who require exercise as a part of their treatment or rehabilitation for a disease, injury or operation. Therefore, there have been increased demands for specifically trained exercise professionals in the health care system and community.
Chronic diseases are the leading cause of disability and premature death. The eight leading causes of disease burden are coronary heart disease, back pain and problems, other musculoskeletal conditions, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, dementia, anxiety disorders and stroke. All of these diseases except lung cancer have good evidence base for a role of exercise in both preventing and managing progression.
Clinical nutrition is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases that affect the intake, absorption, and metabolism of dietary constituents and with the promotion of health through the prevention of diet related diseases. Adult diseases of clinical nutrition encompass the most common causes of mortality in the developed world and include obesity with its Co-morbidities of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, increased risks of cardiovascular disease, some cancers, and pulmonary failure; intestinal disorders related to inadequate nutrient absorption; eating disorders; and malnutrition associated with chronic illness and surgical trauma.
We provide the care and service required to alleviate such disease and to promote healthy lifestyle.
● Worldwide obesity has nearly tripled since 1975.
● In 2016, more than 1.9 billion adults, 18 years and older, were overweight. Of these over 650 million were obese.
● 39% of adults aged 18 years and over were overweight in 2016, and 13% were obese.
● Most of the world’s population live in countries where overweight and obesity kills more people than underweight.
● 38 million children under the age of 5 were overweight or obese in 2019.
● Over 340 million children and adolescents aged 5-19 were overweight or obese in 2016.
● Obesity is preventable.
Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health.
What causes obesity and overweight?
The fundamental cause of obesity and overweight is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended. Globally, there has been: an increased intake of energy-dense foods that are high in fat and sugars; and an increase in physical inactivity due to the increasingly sedentary nature of many forms of work, changing modes of transportation, and increasing urbanisation.
Changes in dietary and physical activity patterns are often the result of environmental and societal changes associated with development and lack of supportive policies in sectors such as health, agriculture, transport, urban planning, environment, food processing, distribution, marketing, and education.
What are the common health consequences of overweight and obesity?
Raised BMI is a major risk factor for noncommunicable diseases such as:
Cardiovascular diseases (mainly heart disease and stroke), which were the leading cause of death in 2012; diabetes; musculoskeletal disorders (especially osteoarthritis – a highly disabling degenerative disease of the joints); some cancers (including endometrial, breast, ovarian, prostate, liver, gallbladder, kidney and colon). The risk for these noncommunicable diseases increase, with increase in BMI.
Childhood obesity is associated with a higher chance of premature death and disability in adulthood. But in addition to increased future risks, obese children experience breathing difficulties, increased risk of fractures, hypertension, early markers of cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and psychological effects.
How can overweight and obesity be reduced?
Overweight and obesity, as well as their related noncommunicable diseases, are largely preventable. Supportive environments and communities are fundamental in shaping people’s choices, by making the choice of healthier foods and regular physical activity the easiest choice (the choice that is the most accessible, available and affordable), and therefore preventing overweight and obesity.
Diabetes is a condition that impairs the body’s ability to process blood glucose, otherwise known as blood sugar.
Without ongoing, careful management, diabetes can lead to a buildup of sugars in the blood, which can increase the risk of dangerous complications, including stroke and heart disease.
Three major diabetes types can develop: Type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.
Type I diabetes also known as juvenile diabetes, occurs when the body fails to produce insulin. People with type I diabetes are insulin-dependent, which means they must take artificial insulin on a daily basis.
Type 2 diabetes affects the way the body uses insulin. While the body still makes insulin unlike in type I, the cells in the body do not respond to it as effectively as they once did. This is the most common type of diabetes, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and it has strong links with obesity.
Gestational diabetes occurs in women during pregnancy when the body can become less sensitive to insulin. Gestational diabetes does not occur in all women and usually resolves after giving birth.
Nutrition and physical activity are important parts of a healthy lifestyle when you have diabetes. Following a healthy meal plan and being active can help you keep your blood glucose level, also called blood sugar, in your target range. To manage your blood glucose, you need to balance what you eat and drink with physical activity and diabetes medicine, if you take any. What you choose to eat, how much you eat, and when you eat are all important in keeping your blood glucose level in the range that is recommended.
Good sleep is necessary for optimal health and can affect hormone levels, mood and weight. Sleep problems, including snoring, sleep apnea, insomnia, sleep deprivation, and restless legs syndrome, are common.
Depending on the type of sleep disorder, people may have a difficult time falling asleep and may feel extremely tired throughout the day. The lack of sleep can have a negative impact on energy, mood, concentration, and overall health.
Diet and exercise are critical components of healthy lifestyles, it’s also important to remember that sleep is inherently linked with how we eat (and how much), how we exercise (and whether or not we lose weight), and how we function on a daily basis. Getting the proper amount of sleep each night is necessary to face the world with your best foot forward. Sleep will help you on the road to good fitness, good eating and good health.
(Polycystic Ovarian Disease) or PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome) has taken the world of women by storm. It is a major ailment concerning a huge chunk of young females presently. PCOD strikes mostly at an early age, therefore, a substantial number of young adults go through this problem. This is a common endocrine disorder of unknown aetiology, affecting 5-10% of women of reproductive age. The average age group suffering from PCOD varies between 18 and 45 years. It is important for the youth to understand this disease at its onset, along with the causes and implications in the future.
PCOD is characterised by multiple small cysts in the ovaries. It makes the ovary enlarged and lead to excessive production of androgen and oestrogen hormones causing various bodily issues.
Uncontrolled PCOD can lead to numerous problems such as difficulty in conceiving, increased risk for early onset of type 2 diabetes. Other complications include increased cholesterol levels, high blood pressure and even breast cancer.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder common among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. The ovaries may develop numerous small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to regularly release eggs.
Complications of PCOS/PCOD can include:
● Gestational diabetes or pregnancy-induced high blood pressure
● Miscarriage or premature birth
● Nonalcoholic Steatoheoatitis — a severe liver inflammation caused by fat accumulation in the liver
● Metabolic syndrome — a cluster of conditions including high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that significantly increase your risk of cardiovascular disease
● Type 2 diabetes
● Sleep apnea
● Depression, anxiety and eating disorders
● Abnormal uterine bleeding
● Cancer of the uterine lining (endometrial cancer)
● Obesity is associated with PCOS and can worsen complications of the disorder.
The best way to control and manage PCOD /PCOS is by ensuring proper weight management. Even a 5% reduction in weight can help a lot in treating the disease. However it’s possible for underweight people to have PCOS(Lean PCOS) as well. Thus, PCOD patients must exercise on a regular basis and maintain a healthy diet. Exercise helps lower blood sugar levels. If you have PCOS, increasing your daily activity and participating in a regular exercise program may treat or even prevent insulin resistance and help you keep your weight under control and avoid developing diabetes.
Constipation can happen for many reasons, such as when stool passes through the colon too slowly. The slower the food moves through the digestive tract, the more water the colon will absorb and the harder the faeces will become. A person who poops fewer than 3 times per week may have constipation. Sometimes, constipation results from a blockage in the large intestine.
Constipation occurs when a person has difficulty emptying the large bowel. Home remedies and lifestyle changes can often help resolve it, but sometimes, it may need medical attention.
The main symptoms of constipation are:
● difficulty passing stool
● straining when passing stool
● passing less stool than usual
● lumpy, dry, or hard stool
Other symptoms include:
● pain and cramping in the abdomen
● feeling bloated
● a loss of appetite
Low levels of physical activity may also lead to constipation. People who spend several days or weeks in bed or sitting in a chair may have a higher risk of constipation.
People with regular physical activity and high intake of dietary fibre are less likely to experience constipation.
Exercise has an overall revitalising effect. Regular exercise also means improved blood circulation to the extremities — the fingers, fingernails, toes and toe nails. In fact, exercise benefits the body as a whole, because it improves the strength of the circulatory and respiratory system, which also means improved oxygenation.
Regular exercise is one of the keys to healthy skin. We tend to focus on the cardiovascular benefits of physical activity, and those are important. But anything that promotes healthy circulation also helps keep your skin healthy and vibrant. Exercise helps nourish skin cells and keep them vital. By increasing blood flow, a bout of exercise helps flush cellular debris out of the system. You can think of it as cleansing your skin from the inside.
Your skin is your body’s largest organ. Good skin is partly down to our genetics, but what you eat can also impact its condition and appearance.
The skin has several functions, primarily acting as a barrier to our external environment and protecting us from potential pathogens and pollutants. It also helps the body maintain hydration and regulate our body temperature.
The ideal way to get the nutrients you need for a radiant complexion is eating a healthy, balanced diet. As important as it is to eat a healthy diet, your skin also needs you to not smoke, get enough sleep, exercise regularly, and drink enough water.